May 18, 1994 - September 30, 1995

HSRC Technology Transfer Program
S.C. Grant and R.B. Hayter, Kansas State University

Goal: The goal of this program is to provide a framework for core technology transfer services including publication and distribution of the HSRC Newsletter HazTech Transfer; assistance in producing the five-center publication Centerpoint; maintaining the HSRC Repository and Information Clearinghouse; providing support for conferences, workshops, and training; and administering the Technology Transfer Competitive Grants Program.

Rationale: These communication and training functions are considered fundamental aspects of the center's core program and are separated from the competitive process based on recommendations from the Technology Transfer and Training Advisory Committee.

Approach: The center maintains communication to its consortium members, over 90 principal investigators, non-consortium institutions, government and interested businesses, and individuals through newsletters, press releases, the Internet, workshops, and conferences. The repository serves as an information resource primarily for researchers, but available to any who wish to use it.

Status: HazTech Transfer, the center's quarterly newsletter, continues to provide information about the center's activities to professionals working on hazardous substance issues throughout the country. The newsletter has been published for six years. The newsletter contains announcements of research, training, and technology transfer projects, a calendar of events, a listing of materials available in the center's repository, the annual call for proposals, and in-depth profiles of key center personnel and their funded projects. Center staff served as editors for an issue of Centerpoint, the newsletter of the five Hazardous Substance Research Centers, and an issue of Newspoint, a one-page update brief produced by the five centers. The repository continued to increase its holdings to about 1,100 items. Materials in the repository continue to be utilized through inter-library loan. The repository contains primarily documents such as proceedings, government reports, and other materials not easily obtainable through other sources. An effort is also being made to increase the representation of published materials relevant to hazardous substance research and the mission of the five centers.

Clients/Users: University faculty and environmental professionals benefit from the services provided by this program.

Keywords: technology transfer, newsletter, repository, communication, training.

Conference on Hazardous Waste Research
S.C. Grant, D.L. Tillison, L.E. Erickson, and J.P. McDonald,
Kansas State University

Goal: The goal of this project is to hold an annual research conference on hazardous substance research and to provide opportunities for individuals from public and private sectors to share technical information regarding the management of hazardous substances.

Rationale: Conferences provide good opportunities for the exchange of information. The conference serves as a mechanism of technology transfer by bringing together researchers, regulators, and industry to discuss relevant and timely research impacting everyday government and business decisions.

Approach: Kansas State University's approach has been to expand the Conference on Hazardous Waste Research to include issues of technology transfer and training. The conference is hosted in alternate years by other universities.

Status: The 10th Annual Conference on Hazardous Waste Remediation was held at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, on May 23-24, 1995. Researchers from around the country and abroad attended the conference to present and hear papers, participate in panel discussions, view exhibits, and listen to plenary presentations by Melinda McClanahan and Terry Williams. Five workshops were held in conjunction with the conference. These were the 8-Hour HAZWOPER Refresher Course, Bioremediation of Munitions-Contaminated Soil, Designer Chelators, Beneficial Effects of Vegetation in Contaminated Soils, and Environmentally Conscious Printing. The conference was well attended, and a 357-page conference proceedings was published. The 11th annual conference will be held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during the week of May 20-24, 1996. This conference will be jointly hosted by the center and the Waste-management Education and Research Consortium (WERC).

Clients/Users: University faculty and environmental professionals participate in and benefit from this conference annually.

Keywords: conference, information exchange, research.

A Short Course on Remediation of Contaminated Soils and Sediments
W.E. Kelly, G.B. Keefer, J.R. Rohde, and W.E. Woldt, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Goal: The primary objective of the project is to develop and deliver a short course on remediation of soil contamination. This course focuses on EPA Regions VII and VIII needs and utilizes, to the extent possible, results from research by researchers in the Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Hazardous Substance Research Center.

Rationale: Soil contamination is the focus of research by the Hazardous Substance Research Center, and there is a concurrent need to transfer developing technologies to potential users. This project will contribute to this effort by incorporating current research being done under the center in a short course on soil and sediment contamination and remediation.

Approach: Course development included reviewing current research being conducted by the center and other research institutions for relevant projects. Identified relevant projects were then further reviewed and screened for potential course content and materials. These materials along with existing information were then merged into the course content. Draft course content and materials were then reviewed by researchers, regulators, and professionals in the field. Course materials were then incorporated into two presentation formats: live presentation and video tape.

Status: The course was revised based on comments received from the first delivery in April 1993. Additional visual materials were used and the technical level was decreased slightly. Fewer lectures were given, and they were reordered to provide a better mix of theory and practice. Overheads were used rather than slides. The revised course was delivered in Kansas City on December 2-3, 1993. The course was then further revised based on other reviews. The revised course was delivered in Omaha on Dec. 1-2, 1994. Attendance at the courses in Omaha and Kansas City was good. Expectations and background levels of the participants varied greatly. This project has been completed.

Clients/Users: Personnel from government agencies, universities, and industry will be interested in these short courses.

Keywords: course, remediation, soil.

Development of Pollution Prevention Programs for Small Quantity Generators in EPA Regions VII and VIII
M.F. Dahab and W.E. Woldt, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Goal: The goal of this project is to provide incentives for waste prevention in commercial small quantity generators within EPA Regions VII and VIII. The specific objectives are as follows:

Rationale: Waste reduction at the source is particularly important to hazardous waste generators in rural areas and indeed may be the only reasonable alternative to effective waste management since disposal facilities are usually located at considerable distances, and collection programs are virtually non-existent. In addition, waste minimization opportunities through off-site recycling, reuse, and recovery normally are either non-existent or located at considerable distances and, thus, not cost-effective. Studies have shown that attempts to develop integrated waste management systems in rural areas have been frustrated by geographic remoteness of waste generators from potential waste users. This fact applies equally to solid wastes as well as to hazardous wastes. Even in communities with considerable populations (e.g., over 100,000 people), integrated waste management practices often run into the hurdle of finding markets for recyclable materials and reusable wastes. True waste prevention through source reduction (including on-site recycling, re-use, and recovery) may be the only reasonable waste management practice, and off-site waste management approaches usually are less effective.

Approach: One of the basic elements of the program is development of waste management tool kits that can be specifically used by small quantity generators of hazardous waste. The tool kits will be self-contained, step-wise waste management plans. Each tool kit will be composed of the following components:

Status: Project personnel have completed all components of the tool kits. Working models of the principal tool kits were completed. All of these models also were reviewed by several noted individuals in the pollution prevention field in U.S. EPA Regions VII and VIII. All reviews were positive. Tool kits have been developed for those in dry cleaning, vehicle maintenance, auto-body repair, agriculture, pesticide application, and metal plating. The tool kits are being professionally printed for wide distribution in EPA Regions VII and VIII. This project has been completed.

Clients/Users: This project is of interest to members of various industries.

Keywords: tool kits, industry, pollution prevention.

Waste Management: Development of Pollution Prevention Educational Materials for Farms and Small Acreages
S.M. Niemeyer, W.E. Woldt, M.F. Dahab, and R.D. Grisso, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Goal: Objectives of this project are to modify traditional pollution prevention techniques to suit farm and acreage audiences; transfer current technology to a new group of users; introduce the concept of pollution prevention to farmstead operators, householders, and acreage owners; help them understand the nature of their waste stream; suggest alternatives and consequences of each alternative; and assist them in making decisions about alternatives within the rural community.

Rationale: Pollution prevention has been established as one of the highest priorities at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the solution of first choice to environmental problems. A review of previous pollution prevention efforts indicates that existing resources have been directed toward traditional industrial processes. An industry that has apparently been left out of these educational efforts is production agriculture at the farm scale. Rural conditions and dispersed populations result in a lack of services or opportunities for economical and appropriate disposal of solid and hazardous waste materials. As a group, farm operators and acreage owners are stewards of the land and responsible for more natural resources than their urban counterparts. Agricultural farming industry uses hazardous materials daily, and many of these wastes contain some of the 17 chemicals that have been targeted for reduction by the EPA.

Approach: The proposed approach to rural waste management is the modification of traditional pollution prevention techniques to suit farm and acreages audiences. This implies a transfer of current technology to a new user group. Educational materials developed will introduce pollution prevention to farmstead operators and acreage owners, help them understand the nature of their waste stream, suggest alternatives and possible consequences, assist them in making decisions about the alternatives, and build a pollution prevention "ethic." This project will transfer pollution prevention technology to an industry that has been neglected. It is expected that this effort will result in less environmental pollution from waste that is currently stored and generated on farms and acreages. The process and materials could serve as a model for a nationwide pollution prevention effort as a key element in solving the rural waste management dilemma.

Status: Literature was reviewed as a basis for content of the program. Objectives of the program were coordinated with Farm-A-Syst and Home-A-Syst programs. States contacted include Wisconsin, Oregon, Washington, Mississippi, and Alabama. Content has been developed with interactive materials and teaching guides. Drafts have been written for four educational units and educator's guides in the program: (1) Pollution Prevention Overview, (2) Pollution Prevention for Ag Production, (3) Pollution Prevention in Acreages, and (4) Pollution Prevention for Households. A series of waste management fact sheets has been published as resource materials. Materials are being prepared to send out to other professionals for technical review. Following review, draft materials will be revised for final publication.

Clients/Users: Those in agriculture-related fields will be interested in this project.

Keywords: waste management, pollution prevention, farms, education.

Public Information Services
S.C. Grant, Kansas State University

Goal: The HSRC Technology Transfer Public Environmental Information Services program fills a significant void in public understanding of complex scientific and technical issues related to hazardous substances in our environment. The primary focus is the widest possible dissemination of technical and socio-political-economic issues related to hazardous substances presented in layman's terms. All available media have been asked to participate including newspapers, magazines, radio, and television stations and specialized agencies such as state extension and continuing education services. Though some media sources cannot participate effectively due to resource limitations, interest in the program is high.

Rationale: Although media sources and agencies are presently utilized to provide information to the public, much environmental information is based on editorials, letters to the editor, controversial subject presentations by non-technical reporters, newsletters, and editors. Very rarely are technically-qualified presenters used to write news articles or to provide radio/TV programming, especially for smaller papers and broadcast stations. Much public understanding of technical issues is, therefore, inaccurate, based on misinformation, and emotionally driven. We have had numerous requests from public organizations and some media sources for articles, presentations, and "newsworthy" information on center activities and research results.

Approach: To accurately enhance public awareness of technical issues involved in hazardous waste management, the center is undertaking the following actions:

Status: Radio and television interviews, seminar participation, and communications with professional organizations, faculty members, and citizens have been varied and numerous during the course of the project. Quarterly feature articles for 86 local or weekly papers and 11 regional newspapers were written and released. Quarterly feature articles were also published in HazTech Transfer, the center's newsletter. Responses to the articles have been received through mail, FAX, phone, and electronic mail. Negotiations were begun with Sprint to utilize the newest available technology for personal computers with interactive video for this project. Project evaluation instruments have begun to be developed. The final opinionaire has not been prepared yet due to uncertain changes in environmental law, regulation, and policy from the Congress, EPA, and the states. This project has been extended and some work is continuing.

Clients/Users: This project is of most interest to the general public.

Keywords: information, editorials, public, media.

Libby, Montana, Superfund Site: Prepared-Bed Bioremediation in Buried Lifts as Affected by Oxygen Concentration in Soil Gas
R.C. Sims, Utah State University

Goal: The main goal of this project is to contribute to assessment and management of soil bioremediation systems to increase the rate of treatment and, therefore, decrease the time required for achieving required treatment levels for unsaturated soil.

Rationale: The rationale for this project is based on the need for more rapid remediation of contaminated sites that are currently using bioremediation systems.

Approach: A full-scale evaluation of continued treatment of buried lifts of unsaturated soil will be performed. This will be accomplished by measuring the rate of disappearance of PCP and the 16 priority pollutant PAH compounds in individual lifts of soil below the surface lift. Field scale measurements of oxygen concentration in each lift will also be measured and related to the rate of PCP and PAH disappearance. In addition, laboratory confirmation tests will be used to determine the effect of oxygen concentration on the rate and extent of disappearance of PCP and PAH in soil samples taken from each buried lift. It is anticipated that sampling at depths greater than those performed before (one and two feet below the surface) will show a decrease in concentration with depth. If a relationship is found between soil gas oxygen concentration in buried lifts and rate of disappearance of PCP and PAH, then bioventing will be tested as a management option for increasing oxygen concentration in buried lifts. Results will be used to determine the potential for decreasing the required time for treatment of soil in prepared bed systems.

Status: Conclusions concerning mineralization of 14C-pyrene in a laboratory microcosm evaluation of contaminated soil taken from the site with regard to the effect of soil gas oxygen concentration are summarized as follows: there is a definite effect of soil gas oxygen concentration on the mineralization of 14C-pyrene; there is a significant increase in mineralization rate and extent of 14C-pyrene at soil gas oxygen concentrations from 2% through 21%; mineralization of 14C-pyrene at 0% oxygen concentration in soil gas is not significant; and mineralization of 14C-pyrene was confirmed to be due to biological processes. Conclusions regarding the chemical mass of 14C-pyrene in contaminated soil taken from the site are summarized as follows: mineralization was the dominant fate mechanism at all non-zero oxygen concentrations; soil extractable 14C was the second largest fraction of recovered 14C and was the dominant fate for 14C-pyrene incubated at 0% oxygen concentration; soil bound 14C was the third largest fate mechanism at all non-zero oxygen concentrations; and volatilization of 14C was minimal for all oxygen concentrations evaluated. Conclusions regarding the effect of soil gas oxygen concentration on non-radiolabeled pyrene present in the contaminated soil are summarized as follows: loss of pyrene was significant at soil gas oxygen concentrations of 5% and above; loss of pyrene was not significant at soil gas oxygen concentrations below 5%; and no significant loss of pyrene occurred in poisoned microcosms over the range of oxygen concentrations from 0% to 21%. Based on results and conclusions for radiolabeled pyrene and for non-radiolabeled pyrene, a recommendation for soil gas oxygen would be a minimum of 5% in buried lifts of a prepared bed bioreactor in order to maintain conditions conducive for continued biodegradation of pyrene. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: This project will be of interest to government agencies, industry, and university faculty members.

Keywords: Superfund, prepared-bed bioremediation, buried lifts.

Training to Advance Environmental Research in Lithuania
R.V. Thurston, Montana State University

Goal: The goal of this project is to determine the nature and extent of industrial and agricultural chemicals being discharged into surface waters within Lithuania and to help scientists upgrade their capabilities to perform chemical analyses, toxicity testing, data processing, and environmental modeling.

Rationale: This project began with funding from other sources prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Characterization of water contamination within Lithuania was being carried out with the assumption that it was representative of many wastes being discharged elsewhere. The results will be useful for environmental protection in many countries. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, investigators now deal directly with the Lithuanian government and universities.

Approach: The goal of this project will be accomplished through the following activities: identification of organic and inorganic chemical pollutants and monitoring of chemical and biological parameters in Lithuanian surface and ground waters; ecological and water quality modeling, including evaluation of assumptions for modeling fate and effects of pollutants; measurement of transformation and equilibrium constants for predicting fate and effects of pollutants; investigation of microbial transformation processes; and toxicity testing of identified pollutants on biological species indigenous to the Baltic Republics.

Status: With previous funding, two studies on the quality of surface waters in Lithuania have been completed. One involved hazardous organic chemicals and the other trace metals. Technical assistance has been provided in the collection of data for two other closely related studies. Two environmental chemistry training courses have been held at Montana State University for Lithuanian scientists. Project personnel have provided technical assistance in instrument repair, methods of chemical analysis, and data processing to the Lithuanian Environmental Protection Department and Vilnius University. Investigators have provided computers and training in computer use to Lithuanian collaborators. Additional technical assistance has been provided on aquatic toxicology research and bioindicators of pollution. Together American and Lithuanian investigators have written and edited 17 papers for publication by U.S. EPA as an ecological research series document. This project is in its first year.

Clients/Users: This project will be of interest to Lithuanian and U.S. governmental agencies and those responsible for regulation of surface water quality.

Key words: Lithuania, water contamination, agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, metals.

Engineering Scale-Up of In Situ Bioremediation Pocesses: A Process Guideline for Biotreatability
A.B. Cunningham, B.K. Warwood, and N. Zelver, Montana State University

Goal: The goal is to provide a protocol for comprehensive biotreatability site evaluation.

Rationale: Bioremediation is the application of microbial processes to remove or degrade contaminating substances from soil, ground water, or bodies of water. While this method of remediation is often used, it seldom fulfills expectations. Lack of proper site evaluation is usually the basis for this deficiency.

Approach: The biotreatability evaluation document will incorporate and describe successful methodologies for evaluating site biodegradation kinetics and mass transport parameters. It will also serve as a guideline for in situ biotreatability work plan development and evaluation and be the basis for a design protocol. This document will be developed during the first year of funding. A second year proposal will be submitted to present a workshop for industrial representatives to transfer the described protocol to industrial field representatives.

Status: Investigators have been working on scaling up bioremediation research from the laboratory to the field. They are investigating biotic and abiotic phenomena which limit the rate at which biotransformation can proceed in the field. Kinetic rates of reaction, adsorption/desorption, interphase transfer, advective and dispersive transport, and field heterogeneities are being studied in isolation from the potential effects of other variables. Field data have been collected and systematically compared to laboratory results to evaluate the success of the scale-up project. By using the scales of observation approach, investigators will organize the wide assortment of physical, biological, chemical, and hydrologic data for application to in situ bioremediation decision making. This information will be presented in a workshop for practitioners needing to make decisions concerning in situ bioremediation. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: Engineers, university faculty members, and members of industry will be interested in this project.

Keywords: bioremediation, engineering scale-up, biotreatability, in situin situ.

Native American and Other Minority Institutions Program
S.C. Grant and W.M. Griswold, Kansas State University

Goals: Goals are to disseminate information on hazardous substance issues to Native American and other minority persons through a seminar program and to involve faculty and students from Native American and other minority colleges in research, technology transfer, and training relating to hazardous substance problems, especially those on Native American and other minority lands.

Rationale: EPA Regions VII and VIII contain 18 predominantly Native American colleges, two predominantly black colleges, and two predominantly Hispanic colleges. A relationship between the center and Haskell Indian Nations University has been established to enhance dissemination of much-needed hazardous substance information, research, training, and technology to Native American persons. Additional relationships with Native American, black, and Hispanic colleges will be developed.

Approach: The goals will be reached through 1) development of a satellite-delivered seminar program on hazardous substance and other issues for minority faculty and students, 2) funding for cooperative research and technology transfer projects between minority institutions and center consortium institutions, and 3) funding for cooperative research and technology transfer projects at minority institutions.

Status: To date over 60 minority academic institutions (MAIs) have benefited from this program. An advisory board, comprised mostly of faculty from tribally-controlled colleges and representatives from tribal environmental programs, provides guidance on the running of this program. Earth Medicine, the newsletter of the program, has been published for one-year on a bi-monthly basis and is currently distributed to over 1,500 people. Video seminars have been offered to all MAIs throughout the nation. Currently there are about 80 participants in the seminar program. Nine videos have been produced, and several others are in production. Videos have ranged from an overview of this program to a series of videos comparing Native American and European world views to videos on specific contaminants or specific contaminations on Native American lands. Satellite technology has also been used to deliver a seminar to participants. This program co-sponsored a satellite presentation entitled "A Gathering for the Earth," which occurred in Washington, DC, for the 25th Anniversary Earth Day. A satellite program on water quality in Indian Country is being planned. In summer 1995 six scholars from MAIs were supported to work on research projects at center consortium universities. The MAIs included two Native American universities, three historically black universities, and one predominantly Hispanic university. Pre-proposals and proposals from MAIs for research, training, and technology transfer projects have been received and reviewed. Two proposals have been tentatively recommended for funding and several others have been tabled for revisions to the proposals. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: Tribal professionals and laypersons, faculty at minority and non-minority institutions, and minority and non-minority members of industry will be interested in this project.

Keywords: Native American, minority, seminar program, research, training.

Guidance for the Use of Prepared Bed Land Treatment as a Bioremedial Technology
J.L. Sims and R.C. Sims, Utah State University

Goals: The goals of this project are to: (1) develop a guidance manual on use of prepared beds for bioremediation of contaminated soils and (2) develop an interactive computerized decision support system incorporating information contained in the guidance manual.

Rationale: Guidance concerning application of prepared bed land treatment technology is required by decision makers responsible for cleanup of contaminated soils. There is currently, however, no technology transfer guidance specifically on use of prepared bed systems for treatment of contaminated soil.

Approach: The guidance manual will be developed during the first year of funding. The computerized decision support system will be developed during the second year of funding, using the Tripod Decision Support System software and incorporating information contained in the guidance manual. During the third year of funding, the guidance manual and decision support system will be finalized, based on user input and review. These guidance materials will utilize checklists, decision trees, and graphics, as well as explanatory text to aid the decision maker in the understanding of potential applications and limitations of the technology.

Status: Information has been collected for inclusion in the guidance manual and review of the literature has been conducted. Contacts have been made with consulting firms involved in design and operation of prepared bed land treatment systems. The guidance document has been written in such a manner that it can be easily adapted to computer format. Topics discussed in the manual include: waste/soil characterization for prepared bed treatment, treatability studies, facilities design, process operation and management, field performance evaluation and process monitoring, quality assurance planning, health and safety plans, closure and post-closure activities, and case studies. After incorporating changes from internal review, the document will be sent for external peer review. The interactive computerized design support system incorporating the information contained in the guidance manual is being developed also. The design support system will lead a novice user through a step-by-step process to reach a reasonable conclusion; display tables and graphics quickly and concisely for experienced users; provide "browsing" capabilities for users who wish to move to specific modules of information; provide optional supplemental information such as on-line hyper-text, digital video, digital audio, and static images and bitmaps to assist with interpretation of displayed data; interface with commercial database products, spreadsheets, and simulation modes; and use Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) links to interface with commercial products as well as macros and specific software modules for sorting, selecting, and analyzing data. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: This project will be of interest to industry and government agencies.

Keywords: guidance manual, computer decision support system, bioremediation, prepared-bed land treatment.

Bioremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Using Vegetation
M.K. Banks, A.P. Schwab, and R.S. Govindaraju, Kansas State University

Goal: The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate, in a field situation, that vegetation will enhance the biodegradation of petroleum in contaminated soil and to showcase this remediation technology to allow for effective information transfer to interested industry and governmental agencies.

Rationale: Recent research has suggested that vegetation may play an important role in biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in soil. Establishment of vegetation on hazardous waste sites may be an economic, effective, low maintenance approach to waste remediation and stabilization.

Approach: Several petroleum-contaminated field sites will be chosen in collaboration with three industrial partners. These sites will be thoroughly characterized for chemical properties, physical properties, and initial PAH concentrations. A variety of plant species will be established on the sites, including warm and cool season grasses and alfalfa. Soil analyses for the target compounds over time will allow us to assess the efficiency and applicability of this remediation method. By successfully remediating these industrial sites and publishing the results, other companies will be made aware of this technology and may adopt it for use on contaminated sites nationwide.

Status: Several petroleum-contaminated field sites have been chosen and thoroughly characterized for chemical properties, physical properties, and initial contaminant concentrations. A variety of plant species have been established on the sites, including warm and cool season grasses. An industrial contaminated site in the northeast U.S. is undergoing bioremediation by addition of fertilizers and tillage. An adjacent site was chosen for this project. Plots have been seeded with a perennial warm season grass mixture or sorghum or left unseeded. Sorghum and grass grew well in the contaminated soil. The grass plot was overseeded with a cool season perennial grass mixture in the fall. Parallel studies of bioremediation and phytoremediation are ongoing at a Gulf Coast crude oil spill location. Plots have been seeded and overseeded with various vegetation. Grass-seeded plots had significantly higher contaminant degradation than control, sorghum, and legume plots. The third site is at a refinery in California. Plots include an unvegetated control, a tall fescue plot, a native California fescue plot, and a grass and legume mixture plot. Germination and establishment of vegetation on this site appear to be good. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: This project will be of interest to university researchers, members of industry, and government agencies.

Keywords: bioremediation, petroleum contamination, soil, demonstration.

Technical Outreach Services to Communities Program
J.P. McDonald, Kansas State University

Goals: Technical Outreach Services for Communities (TOSC) provides technical assistance to interested individuals and community groups who live near hazardous waste sites. The program is designed to supplement EPA's Technical Assistance Grant (TAG) Program that provides grants to community groups for sites on EPA's National Priority List (NPL). The Technical Outreach Services for Communities program exceeds the scope of EPA's TAG program by providing assistance to communities, groups, and individuals, regardless of the site's status in Superfund (i.e. proposed or final NPL), and the regulatory program taking the lead in site cleanup activities. Additional goals of the program include:

Rationale: EPA and Congress have shown increasing concern over the level of community involvement in the decision-making process at hazardous waste sites in general, and specifically under the Superfund process. In 1986, Congress strengthened requirements for community participation in Superfund when it passed the Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act. These requirements were further strengthened when the revised National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) was released in 1990. One effort in support of furthering community involvement is EPA's Technical Assistance Grants program, where EPA provides community groups up to $50,000 per site for the purpose of obtaining outside technical assistance. This program has had success, but has been hampered by administrative burdens placed on community groups to obtain the grants and is limited to sites designated on the NPL.

Approach: The program provides a variety of services to interested citizens in the 10 state region:

Status: Citizens in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Utah have requested assistance from the program. Assistance is on-going at the Gilbert & Mosley and Rocky Mountain Arsenal sites. Related to the Gilbert & Mosley site, a newsletter is being produced to keep the city of Wichita informed of progress in dealing with the contaminated site. Assistance has been given at the Joslyn St. Tailings site. Smaller communities have been given higher priority in the second year of this project. Technical assistance is being provided in relation to the Black Hills Army Ammunition Plant. Individuals in the surrounding community will receive assistance with basic sampling, analytical chemistry, and site geology; how to know fact from fiction; detection and cleanup of explosives and other ordnance; assessing risk; steps in the cleanup decision process; and who regulates what in the Black Hills cleanup. Assistance to the Oglala Sioux Nation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation centers around tribal interest in reclaiming 3,000 acres of land acquired by the war department in 1942 for use as a bombing range. In addition to the problem of unexploded ordnance and explosives-contaminated soils, severe contamination of local drinking water wells was recently discovered. Individuals have requested assistance in dealing with toxicological issues at the Missoula White Pine Sash Company site. In addition to these projects, calls continue to be received on the Hazardous Substance Information Line for one-time or other limited assistance. This project is in its second year.

Clients/Users: Researchers, members of industry, and citizens will be interested in this project.

Keywords: communities, outreach services, Technical Assistance Grants, National Priority List.

Research and Re-Education for Displaced Defense Personnel Program
B.A. Leven and S.C. Grant, Kansas State University

Goals: Goals of this program are to fund research and technology transfer projects focused on hazardous substance and waste issues at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) sites; develop and implement new cleanup technologies for the marketplace; and provide tuition reimbursement, financial support, and specialized training, and facilitate job placement for students impacted by DoD downsizing, in association with funded research projects.

Rationale: Large numbers of military personnel and DoD/U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) civilian personnel are being displaced by base closures and government downsizing. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) has designated funding for the re-education of these personnel in environmental fields and for research to be conducted specific to DoD sites.

Approach: Research, technology transfer, and training proposals to be funded will focus, whenever possible, on specific DoD environmental problems and issues related to hazardous substances on DoD sites and installations. Qualified displaced military and DoD/DOE civilians will be supported as graduate students (and in some cases, undergraduates) working on projects approved by the center. Student participant recruiting, coordination, progress monitoring, and job placement assistance will be provided by the Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Center for the five centers nationwide. DoD and DOE will be given an opportunity to hire graduates of this program.

Status: On a national scale, over 70 displaced DoD personnel are enrolled at center consortium universities. Most of the students are serving as undergraduate and graduate assistants on 75 interdisciplinary research projects. Approximately 30 of these projects are directly related to new technologies or field techniques suited for use at DoD and other environmental cleanup sites. Over a third of the 75 projects have commercialization potential. Project topics include use of vegetation to remediate/contain metals and organic contamination in soil/ground water; use of metals, chelating agents, cometabolism, air-sparged hydrocyclones, and surfactants to remediate contaminated soils; and improved ways of characterizing/analyzing contaminants in soil. This project is in its first year.

Clients/Users: This project is of interest to displaced military and DoD/DOE civilian personnel, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, contractors, industry, and regulators.

Key words: re-education, training, military, DoD, job placement assistance.

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